What security flaws in HTTP are fixed by the HTTPS protocol?

With the continuous development of the Internet, the HTTP protocol has exposed some shortcomings in terms of security. In order to solve these problems, HTTPS protocol was introduced and gradually became the mainstream communication protocol. Compared to the HTTP protocol, HTTPS fixes several major security flaws:

1, communication content encryption: HTTP protocol uses plaintext transmission data, which means that all communication content is transmitted in a readable form, easy to be obtained and interpreted by listeners. This poses a serious security risk in Internet communications, especially for the transfer of sensitive information such as login credentials, personal data and financial data.

In order to solve the security defect of HTTP protocol, HTTPS protocol came into being. HTTPS is used in combination with SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) or TLS (Transport Layer Security) to encrypt HTTP communications. This encryption process is implemented through the use of public and private keys, ensuring that only the sender and receiver can properly decrypt and understand the content of the communication.

When establishing an HTTPS connection, the client and server exchange and verify certificates to confirm the identity and credibility of the other party. Once the certificate is authenticated, a set of encryption algorithms and keys are negotiated between the client and server to encrypt and decrypt the communication content. In this way, when the data passes over the network in transit, any eavesdropper cannot interpret its contents, because they can only see the encrypted data.

By encrypting the content of communications, HTTPS protects user privacy and the security of sensitive information. Whether users log in, shop, bank or send personal data online, all communications are encrypted, making it impossible for eavesdroppers to easily access sensitive information. This encryption mechanism provides users with a higher level of security and enhances users' trust in websites and service providers.

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2, communication party authentication: In the HTTP protocol, the identity of the communication party cannot be verified, which means that the actual target of communication with the server cannot be determined. This gives hackers or attackers the opportunity to disguise their identities, potentially leading to malicious behavior and information leakage.

In order to solve the authentication defect of HTTP protocol, HTTPS protocol introduces a certificate to verify the identity of the communication party. Certificates are issued by a trusted third-party authority, such as a digital certificate Authority, to prove the real existence of the server and client. The certificate contains the server's (or client's) public key and other relevant information, and is guaranteed to be authentic by a digital signature.

When establishing an HTTPS connection, the server provides its certificate to the client. The client verifies the validity and validity of the certificate, including the signature, issuing authority, and validity period. If the certificate validates, the client can determine that the communicating party is a trusted server with which it can safely communicate.

Through communication party authentication, the HTTPS protocol provides a secure mechanism to ensure that the server is communicating with a legitimate and trusted entity. In this way, security threats such as man-in-the-middle attacks can be prevented, and the identities of the communication parties can be trusted. Users can confidently interact with the site and submit sensitive information without fear of being tricked by a disguised server or having their information stolen.

3, data integrity protection: HTTPS protocol in the process of data transmission to protect the integrity of the data, repair the defects in the HTTP protocol. In the HTTP protocol, data is transmitted in plain text during the communication process, and there is no protection mechanism, so data is easy to be tampered with without being detected. To solve this problem, the HTTPS protocol introduces encryption and summarization algorithms to protect the integrity of the data.

After an HTTPS connection is established, the client and server negotiate a symmetric key to encrypt data during communication. This means that all data transmitted over the connection is encrypted, making it impossible for eavesdroppers to obtain meaningful information. By using symmetric key encryption, data can be prevented from being tampered with during transmission.

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At the same time, HTTPS protocol also uses the summary algorithm to ensure the integrity of the data. At the data sender, the data is summarized to produce a summary value, usually using a hash function such as SHA-256. This summary value serves as the unique fingerprint of the data and is used to verify whether the data has been tampered with during transmission. After receiving the data, the data receiver recalculates the summary value and compares it with the summary value sent by the sender. If the two digest values are consistent, data integrity is not compromised. If the digest values are inconsistent, the data may have been tampered with, and the recipient can reject the data or take other security measures.

By fixing the above security flaws, the HTTPS protocol provides greater security and protection for Internet communications. In the modern Internet environment, more and more websites adopt HTTPS protocol to ensure users' privacy and data security, which promotes the security development of the Internet.

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